As Nigerian government is trying hard to diversify the economy from the oil-mono-economy to Agriculture, Livestock farming is gradually becoming the next oil.
In this article, we’ll be sharing with you some great livestock farming you could start in Nigeria.
Many of these livestock businesses have been extensively discussed on this website and we have linked to them accordingly.
Now let’s get started!
Introduction to The Livestock Farming in Nigeria
Livestock farming is defined simply as the process of breeding animals for the sole purpose of consumption. Animal husbandry which is another name for livestock farming, is a rapidly growing arm of farming in Nigeria, and the primary reason why more entrepreneurial farmers are venturing into livestock farming is its profitability.
Why Livestock Farming?
As long as humans exist, there will always be need for food and the two major sources of food for mankind are crops and animals.
Now when you think about the huge population of Nigeria (going to 200 million as at the time of writing this), you’ll know why livestock farming business could be profitable in Nigeria. as the Nigerian community depends mostly on meat, especially from cows and chicken.
Meat in Nigeria is an important part of daily meals, and a good proportion of household food budgets are expended on meat and related products.
Attributes of Livestock Farmers
There are certain attributes that successful livestock farmers have in common, because while livestock farming is profitable, it can also be hard, and capital and labour intensive.
The first attribute is commitment.
For any venture in life to be successful, livestock farming included, the visionary must be very committed to his/her vision. A successful livestock farmer has to be hardworking.
It can be back-breaking work, and laziness will not suffice. When you think about taking care of animal from day one till they grow up to reproduce, you’ll see that it’s not a cheap work, though you could deligate (employ) some people to manage your farm
Other characteristics of successful livestock farmers are proactiveness and a thirst for knowledge. One person does not know it all, and for a farmer to be successful, he cannot rely absolutely on his own knowledge alone.
There is constantly evolving scientific and business information out there on how to make livestock farming more profitable and better, and a livestock farmer worth his salt will seek to learn the latest techniques and methods.
A few other non-negotiable attributes are discipline, doggedness and goal-mindedness.
Popular Animal Breeds for Animal Husbandary
As always, demand drives supply, even in the commercial livestock farming industry. The kind of animals reared in Nigeria for consumption, based on the demand for them, include Cow, Goat, Cattle, Pig, and several others while poultry birds includes chicken, turkey and duck. Fish, with an emphasis on the catfish breed, is also another livestock bred for its meat in Nigeria.
Below, we take a brief but closer look at each animal bred for consumption in Nigeria. To know more about them and to see how we can help you to train you or to start anyone of them, kindly click on anyone of your choice.
This is about the most common and perhaps most hyped form of livestock farming in Nigeria at the present. It is estimated that five out of every ten Nigerians consume catfish on a weekly basis, meaning that at the very least 75 million catfish are bought and consumed every week in Nigeria alone.
That makes the demand for the product very high. The potentials of catfish farming in Nigeria are endless, and established fish farmers say that it is possible to recoup investment outlay in 12 months.
Before starting your own fishery business you’ll need:
A piece of land
Fish ponds. You will need to procure the services of a pond construction expert for this (or contact us to help you).
Borehole and overhead tank: This will serve as the water reservoir for the fishes.
Fingerlings: Make sure to buy fast growing and disease resistant breeds.
A few pointers:
Before beginning a catfish farming business, here are a few pointers to consider:
Size: decide what size your farm will be, and the size will determine if you already have the necessary capital or if you need to access outside funding.
Level of demand: Since your objective is to make profit, you have to investigate the level of demand for the catfish in your desired market area.
Estimate the cost: Once you have done your market research, you will understand how many numbers of catfish you’re likely to sell per month. The next step is to try to know your monthly cost. This includes one off expenditures such as building of fish tanks, and recurrent expenditures such as fish feed and medication.
(You can contact us if you’ll like a cost analyses and fish farming business plan)
Your competitors: Business is about winning market share, so you must find out if there were other fish farms operating before in your intended market. How are they doing? How much of the market demand are they satisfying?
What share of the market will you be able to effectively capture?
Knowledge base: Continue to increase your knowledge base about catfish breeding and farming, marketing, negotiation, market dominance etc so that your business can be profitable.
If you’ll like an intensive fish farming business training or even want our expert fish farmers to help you to set up your own fish farm, click HERE
Pig farming has began to become popular among livestock farmers in Nigeria in the recent time.
Pork, the byproduct of the farms, is said to fetch an annual revenue of N50 billion in Nigeria. Smart investors and entrepreneurs are taking advantage of the huge demand for pork, and since pigs reproduce in large numbers and grow very fast, the sky is the limit.
A single pig can have a litter of as much as 8/10 piglets at a time, making it one of the fastest reproducing livestock in the world.
Before starting your own pig farming in Nigeria, you will need:
A piece of land for breeding: It is advisable to secure a piece of land in the rural areas. Land is cheaper there, and the pigs can root around in the fields once in a while.
Standard pens: To house the pigs. This must have proper drainage to eliminate bad odour and diseases.
Water pool: While this is optional, it is important to note that pigs like swimming and being able to keep cool is necessary for their well beings because pigs are not sweating animals.
A few pointers:
Veterinary doctor: Secure the services of vet doctor for regular checkup and vaccination as well as feeding and nutrition advice.
Employ workers: You will need some workers for assistance, as pig farming can be labour intensive.
Feeding: Pigs eat a wide variety of food, but they need a balanced diet like humans do. Their diet should contain fibre, energy, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals in order for them to thrive.
If you want our experienced pig farmers to train you or help you to set-up your own pig farming business in Nigeria, click HERE
Poultry farming business is part of the animal husbandry which is as old as mankind itself.
This aspect of livestock farming presents one of the finest opportunity for entrepreneurs to make good money within the shortest period of time possible. This is made possible due to the quick maturity of chickens and turkeys.
There is also that overwhelming demand for eggs on a daily basis.
A farmer might start poultry farming either for the meat of the chicken and turkey, or for the eggs that the chicken can lay.
Before you start, you will need:
A piece of land
Pens (chicken’s houses): Housing is very important for chicken rearing and effective keeping and management. Poultry housing are classified according to the scale and the management system.
Day old chicks
Feeders, Drinkers, Perches. Nests, Crates, Lighting system, Waste disposal system, Incubator, Heaters or brooders, Egg tray, Cages and coops.
A few pointers:
Decide on the type of bird you want to concentrate on. While the most common bird reared in Nigeria is the chicken (Layers and Broilers), some farms also breed turkeys, geese and/or ducks.
Decide on your area of interest: Choose you exact area of focus. This may be layers breeding which is egg production by Layers, broilers breeding which refers to the chicken meat production by broilers, turkey breeding which refers to turkey meat production by turkeys, and hatchery which has to do with breeding chicken for the purpose of hatching new chicks.
Location: A location in a very remote rural area will cost far less than the one close to the urban area.
4. Rabbit farming
Rabbit rearing is a business that requires less space and can therefore be done anywhere. The capital investment is relatively smal. You will however need to have an in-depth knowledge of how to raise the animals, and do extensive market research to determine who your customers are.
Every single part of the rabbit is useful; from the skin which is used to leather production, to its furs which is used for clothes manufacturing and meat for consumption.
Before you start your rabbit farming business in Nigeria, you will need:
Cages or hutches: These should be able to protect the rabbits from heat and humidity.
Feeders and drinkers
Feed: This may be processed feed or edible vegetable and leaves, elephant grass, potatoes and different kinds of herbs.
5. Goat farming
Goat farming is gaining popularity in Nigeria by and by. The meat is alleged to be the best kind of animal meat for the following reasons: it tastes good, and traditionally has a lower fat content than chicken does, and a higher protein content than beef does.
It also has a lot of byproducts such as cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and butter. These are the reasons goat farming is considered by wise farmers as a lucrative venture and it is increasingly becoming very popular among modern farmers in Nigeria.
Before starting your own goat farming business in Nigeria, you will need:
A piece of land/pasture: Acquire a good grazing ground that grows plenty of grass varieties. Goats need a large expanse of land, because they move around a lot while grazing.
Appropriate fencing – Construct short perimeter fence round your pasture or barbwire fence.
Housing: Goats like to stay indoors when the weather is not conducive e.g too hot or raining.
A few pointers:
Species: There are a large number of goat breeds suitable for different purposes of rearing. Some are very good for milk production while some are good for the meat. Choose what is appropriate for your commercial purposes. Once decided, buy healthy kids.
Veterinarians – You will need to have appointment with a veterinary Doctors near you for periodic checkup and vaccination.
6. Cattle rearing
Cattle farming is the process and practice of raising and nurturing cattle from birth until the point at which they provide meat or milk for consumption. The reasons why cattle farming is lucrative in Nigeria are not hard to imagine.
One, we are a nation of beef consumers. And two, although cattle are raised primarily for beef or milk production, there is no part of the cow that isn’t useful. Other ‘by-products’ include dairy products, cow hide, cow horns, bones, hooves and stearic acid.
Cattle farmers basically raise cattle either to sell as a whole or sell their products.
Getting started cattle rearing business in Nigeria, you will need:
Farmland: A very large piece of land.
Feeding and watering equipment
A few pointers
Cattle business model: Most farmers either go for Dairy Operation Business Model or Beef Production Business Model. Dairy Operation Business Model is raising cattle primarily to sell their dairy products – especially milk. Beef Production Business Model is raising cattle primarily for beef consumption.
Whichever model you decide on plays a key role in determining the farm equipment you will go for.
Climate: Be sure that rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and all are favourable to your cattle breed
Government Policies: Varying from State to State, some governments have all sorts of rules guiding cattle ranches. You will do well to consider these policies before purchasing the land.
Breed: There are over 800 known breeds of cows. Your cattle business model should be put into consideration before deciding on your choice of cow. It sure doesn’t make sense to settle for beef cows when your intended model is for dairy production. There are two breeds traditionally reared in Nigeria. They are the Zebu and the Taurines.
Vet doctors: Always have a veterinary doctor on call. S/he will help with vaccinations, birthing, feeding and treatment.
(We have written about abour Dairy Farming Business before, which is part of cow rearing business)
Other Livestock Farming Business in Nigeria
Other livestock that can be profitably reared in Nigeria for their meat are;
7. Snails farming,
8. Grass cutters,
There are few other livestock farming in Nigeria but they may not as profitable as the above mentioned.
Advantages of livestock farming in Nigeria
It is an easy way of gaining employment and providing income.
When properly run, it is very lucrative
It helps in feeding the nation
It can serve as a source of export income.
Disadvantages of livestock farming in Nigeria
It is generally labour intensive. You have to be willing to put in the required work hours to make a profit.
When there is a lack of knowledge or appropriate know-how, it can lead to loss of income and savings.
In conclusion, while livestock farming has more advantages than it does disadvantages, the onus rests on the farmer to make a success of his farm.
As previously mentioned, he has to be dogged and committed, and he has to continually educate himself on best practices in order to take advantage of modern scientific breakthroughs and business knowledge to run his business successfully.
The importance of market research cannot be overemphasized. Research the market for demand, research your competitors, research how to source for funding, research where to get the best equipment and feed. Research everything.
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