Dear friend, you’re welcome to the Africa Business Classroom (ABC).
I started my first business before I was a boy of 15. Today I run my company in Lagos and operate in different states of Nigeria.
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Let’s start this tutorial.
A lot of people want to venture into agriculture business without passing through much stress. If you are looking for an animal farming business in Nigeria which can fetch you good cash without much stress, then take a look at Goat Farming Business in Nigeria
If you are a lover of goat and you want to enter into the goat rearing business or you are already into this business and looking for new tips on how to improve it , then you’re in the right place .
Goat rearing business is by far among the intensive animal farming business in which a lot of people have embarked on and are testifying of it income return.
Another amazing thing about goat farming is that anyone in any place can setup this business and soon enough, they will start making profit from it.
Do a lot of people really consume goat meat?
I guess you might be thinking that this is a ridiculous question to ask , but believe me there are a lot of people who might not know, so for their sake let’s discuss this a little .
Aside from cow meat, goat meat is another type of meat widely loved, by many in Nigeria. And the reason is because of its unique taste or aroma.
Apart from these, goat meat is highly nutritious because it has more Lean that is; it has low cholesterol which is very good for people who have a preference for low energy diet and most times Doctors do recommend it to some patients .
So permit me to conclude that many Nigerians eat goat meat every day and this should drive you to the zeal of starting up your own commercial goat farming in Nigeria.
Is Goat Farming Business Profitable in Nigeria ?
If I invest into goat farming , how much will be my income flow be? Are you asking this question ?
Let’s make a possible estimation ;
A healthy and well-matured goat could weigh about 100-150 pounds (that is if you want to measure your goats in pounds, most seller uses this method). So, for that pounds, a goat should cost roughly #50,000 or even more . And let’s say you have about 100 goats in your goat farm, you would be selling for about #5,000,000.
Let’s assume that the cost of feeding and labour is even as high as #3,000,000, you could still be making as much as #2,000,000 every year.
(The estimate is as of 2016 and your environment could influence the price, so you have a little marketing research to do in your environment)
So you see, goat farming is a good investment, though no business makes you rich overnight. There’s always a time of little beginning.
How much capital do I need to setup my goat farming business ?
Compared to rearing other livestock, goat farming business requires little or less capital .
You don’t need millions of naira to set up a goat farm, unless if you want to make it larger. But nevertheless , you can set up your goat farming business with not so much amount.
Just bear in mind that you are setting up a commercial goat farming. When you’re in the business, as profits flows in, you can then put in more goats.
Do I need to be an expert before setting up a goat farming in Nigeria ?
And the answer to this question is NO! You don’t need to become an expert nor a professional in agriculture to make it in this business. All you need is the passion and determination that will keep you moving forward.
What other byproducts do I gain from goat farming?
As interesting as it might be, the amazing fact about rearing goats is that goat is a multifunctional animal. You don’t only gain from selling your goats as meats, but you can also gain more from some of its byproducts such as milk, fibers, skin, and manure.
I will explain each of this a bit for better understanding.
Goat Milk; though it may not be that popular or widely consumed in Nigeria, goat milk can be produced from goat. Goat milk is said to have low cholesterol and it is non-allergic compared to cow milk.
The nutrients in goat milk are said to help in improving appetite and digestive efficiency. It also has anti-fungal and antibacterial properties which can be used for the treatment urinogenital diseases of fungal origin. Other dairy products derived from goat aside milk are yoghurt, cheese, and butter.
Fibers; some breed of goats like the Cashmere and Angora can produce high-quality fibers. These can also be sold for maximum profit.
Hides and skin; every breed of goats produce hides and skin, which can serve or use in the production of leather items. But know that the breed which produces high quality hides and skin are the Black Bengal goats or Kalahari Red goats (can be mostly found in Nigeria).
They have thick hides and skin which is not only sold in Nigeria but also internationally, and because of it extravagantly quality, their skin has a high demand. If you intend to deal with in goat hides and skin, make a market research about it and know who your buyers are.
Manure; Most farmers love and prefer to use organic manure than using artificial fertilizers to grow their crops. Goat’s faeces are high organic manure (fertilizers) that are used for the rapid growth of farm crops. You as a goat seller can make a good income from these.
What weather condition is suitable for rearing goats in Nigeria?
Unlike some livestock farming like chickens , Snails, Fish and the likes, goat is one animal that is never selective of weather condition. And to top it all, Nigeria weather is very suitable for rearing goats in any state.
Now we have discussed the considerable factors, let’s move to the main point; How to start goat farming in Nigeria.
Goat farming business plan; a good business should have a business plan. These assist you to pinpoint things you should do to improve your goat farm. Alongside, you should have record keeping if need maybe, it should document what has been sold, purchased. To know when you are gaining or losing.
The reason why you are rearing goat; when setting up your goat rearing business, you should determine the main reason why you are rearing goat; are you rearing them for meat, for milk, or for their skin?
Make a market research of the one that has a high demand and will also profit you more and go into it.
Land location; when you want to get a land for your goat farming, select a location that is good for pasture or grazing (just as you would do in cattle farming).
Make sure the land is not far from town or market for easy access. If possible, let there be a market near the farm land, so you can have easy access to get any types of equipments you might need.
Housing; when building a pen for your goat, build one that will shed them from rain and the sun. You can put electricity if need may be. The shed should be well fenced to prevent thief and burglaries. Also, the pen should be clean, should be free from dampness and well it should be well ventilated.
The goat pens should also be free from pest and rodents. You should always use fresh hay or straw for bedding. Initiate activities like introducing toys or so your goats can move around. This also helps in making them healthy and active.
Buying your goat breed
After you have set up the housing (goat pens) for keeping your goat, the next step is to purchase your breed. You should purchase high-quality breed.
Examples of Nigeria breeds are;
- Nigerian dwarf.
- Boer etc.
It is recommended that you should buy at least two bucks (male goat) and many does (female goats). This is highly essential. The does give birth to more goats, and these helps in the increase of the numbers of your goat.
You can also purchase hybrids goats if you want, that is, a combination of different species of goat. Make sure that the goats you are purchasing are in good health and have no sign of diseases.
If you are purchasing a baby goat, make sure that they are properly vaccinated.
Feeding in your goat farm
You can feed your goat any types of crops, corns, and leaves since goats are ruminant’s animals (though like human, they have their different taste, i.e, certain goat may not eat something other goats eat). However, it is advisable that you should have a grazing place so that the cost of feed can be lowered.
There are also specially formulated feeds you can buy in the market; these feeds can make your goat grow faster and big. The little disadvantage of it is that, these feeds can be costly compares to pastures. Sometimes, most farmers do produce their own feed; you can make yours if you can just make sure the feed has about 11%-18% of protein.
Get the Services of a Veterinary doctor; A lot of you might frown on this; you might be asking if rearing goat is easy, why then do I need the service of a veterinary?
Here is the point, I previously wrote that when you are starting up your goat farming business that you should bear in mind that you are setting up a commercial goat farming business. The reason is you will be rearing lots of goats in larger quantity for business.
You don’t want to use your goats for experimenting like those who are rearing two or few goats. With the help of a veterinary, you will know the right nutrient, mineral or medicine that will be administered to your livestock that will maximum your profit and also you can learn new tips from them.
If you want to do it yourself be cautioned that you might lose quite a number of goats in the process.
Goats Maturation; this is the process of goats becoming mature. In goat, puberty age is between six and 12 months (though it can most times vary in breeds. Some breeds maybe more other mat be less. Sometimes, nutrients can also contribute to this. You should note that female goats (doe) go into estrus every 21 days for three to 50 hours.
At this stage, some enough natural mating can begin. But since the advance of technology, some modern farmers practices artificial insemination. It is said that it allocates straight forward entrance to a wide variety of bloodlines.
Marketing your goats; before you fully start your own goat farming, you should make a market research to know how much others are selling in the market so you’ll have a better understanding of goat business in your area and so that you won’t sell your goat below the market price.
Other important things you should know about goat farming in Nigeria.
Gestation; this is the period of time kid (baby goats) develops in their mother’s womb. Goats achieve their sexual at the 10-12 month. The overall period of their gestation is 150 (that is from 145-152 days.)
Some common disease to look out for when rearing your goat;
Tapeworm; you will notice symptoms like; Diarrhea, constipation, some part of tapeworm may be seen in the faeces.
Tuberculosis; you will notice difficulty in respiration, coughing, Irregular low-grade fever of long period, loss of body weight and anemia.
Salmonella infection; noticeable symptoms are like loss of weight and low milk production. This disease is mostly caused by using or giving the dirty or contaminated drinking water.
Rinderpest; the symptoms are Ulcerative lesions will appear inside the lower lip and on the gums. There will also be a mild thermal reaction and diarrhea.
Nitrate/nitrite Poisoning; noticeable symptoms include; urine tested positive for nitrate/nitrite, respiratory difficulty staggering gait, the goat blood becomes chocolate brown in color. Most times death might occur.
This diseases listed above are just a few to mention, there are still many of them. These are the more reason why appointing a veterinary is highly recommend.
If your goat farming business is well managed by a good veterinary, your goats will grow healthy and you will gain more than lose.
General signs that show that goats are sick;
- They won’t drink nor eat.
- Kicking or biting their stomach; bloated.
- The will have a green or cloudy nasal discharge.
- Fever (note; a Body temperature above 103.5 indicate fever and a body temperature above 101.5 indicates subnormal temperature)
- Showing symptoms of pain like grinding their teeth
- They have loose feces which indicates diarrhea or problems in their bowel movement
- Having a rapid or slow breathing
- They have a hard time urinating or they suffer pain when urinating
- Pressing their head against fences or walls
- Their eyelids turn gray or pale in color
Some signs that show your goats (doe) are in heat cycle;
The heat period is when a female goat is ready to mate.
- The doe wags her tail.
- The does act bucky or charged; the doe mounts other does in the herd or allows them to mount her back and will stand for mating.
- The doe gets talkative
- The doe urinates often.
- The buck acts goofy or silly; the buck will wag his tongue, slap a front hoof against the ground, urinate on his own face,
- Milk volume changes; she may resist getting on the milk stand and you may get little or no milk from the doe.
- Her tail gets sticky; the tail may become red, swollen, and wet with a gel-like vaginal discharge.
- Some Signs that shows your goat (doe) is pregnant;
- The doe appetite goes up and milk production goes down.
- The doe’s belly tightens.
- The doe’s personality changes; this is caused by a change of hormone and progesterone.
- The buck’s personality changes; the buck may become aggressive toward the bred doe.
- The doe’s udder swells.
- The doe snores; all goats snore but a pregnant doe snore more loudly. With the all we have discussed, you can see that starting a goat farming business in Nigeria is quite easy compares to the rearing of other livestock. We wish you a successful goat business
PS; This post could be downloaded as PDF ( Goat Farming in Nigeria (how to start & make money))